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Mathematical morphology (MM) is a theoretical model for digital images built upon lattice theory and topology. It is the foundation of morphological image processing, which is based on shift-invariant (translation invariant) operators based principally on Minkowski addition.

Mathematical morphology was originally developed for binary images, viewed as subsets of the integer grid Z2 (or Zd, for any dimension d), and was later successfully extended to grayscale images.

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