Thresholding is the assignment of each pixel in an image to either a true or false class based on the pixel's value, location or both. The result of a thresholding operation is typically a binary image in which each pixel is assigned either a true or false value.

Some popular thresholding algorithms are:

  • median thresholding: pick a global threshold value that results in a final image as close as possible to 50% white, 50% black.
  • entropy thresholding: another way to pick a global threshold value
  • various "local thresholding" algorithms
  • ...

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